Like in English language, Hindi language also has alphabets ( Hindi Varnamala ) they also categorized as Vowels (स्वर) and Consonants (व्यंजन). Hindi consists of 45 alphabets ( हिंदी वर्णमाला ) on pronunciation basis in which 10 vowels and 35 are consonants - Hindi alphabet letters and Counts. There are 52 alphabets on writing basis in which 13 vowels and 39 consonants.
You may see the counting of Vowels and consonants are given different - different in various books or publications because of evolution and standardization process of writing system time to time. Hindi language is write and type in Devanagari script. Here is a chart of Hindi Alphabets for the refernce.
A vowel is a syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. On writing basis there are 13 vowels in Hindi language alphabet. Vowels are known as Svara (स्वर) in Hindi.
13 vowels – अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, ऋ, अं (Anusvara), अ: (Visarg) = 10 +3 = 13.
Note 1 - Indian government keep vowels counting limited to 11 for Hindi language, the last two actually used in Sanskrit language.
Note 2 - 'ऋ' is actually known as half vowel, but Indian government keep it in full in counting.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are, pronounced with the lips; pronounced with the front of the tongue etc. Consonant are known as Vaynjan (व्यंजन) in Hindi. There are 39 letters for Hindi consonants are given below:
- 33 Consonants – क, ख, ग, घ, ड़, च, छ, ज, झ, ञ, ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण, त, थ, द, ध, न, प, फ, ब, भ, म, य, र, ल, व, श, ष, स, ह
- 4 Combined consonants – क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ, श्र
- 2 Binary consonant – ड़ ढ़.
- Total = 33 (Consonants) + 4 (Combined consonants) + 2 (Binary consonant) = 39 Consonants.
Hindi Number/ Numerals
Numerals are written symbols used to represent numbers. Hindi language have there own numerals symbol listed below:
Hindi Numerals ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९
English Numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9